Bruce M. Wilson, Claiming individual legal rights thanks to an excellent constitutional court: The fresh example of gays from inside the Costa Rica, Around the world Log off Constitutional Laws, Volume 5, Issue 2, , Pages 242–257,
In 1989, a newly created Constitutional Legal (Sala IV) quickly turned into a highly effective courtroom, conclude over 160 many years of Costa Rican official laziness. New magistrates’ tips breathed new lease of life to your Composition, finished judicial deference so you can picked authorities, and consequently transformed Costa Rican political life. On top of that, the fresh new Sala IV magistrates believed brand new role away from guardians off constitutional legal rights, giving increase as to what often is also known as a legal rights trend. The content sheds white with the abrupt benefit of the 40-year-dated Constitutional document as a result of an examination of the latest institutional regulations and you may measures around which the the fresh Legal works, plus it explores the fresh new achievements and you will problems of just one of the country’s most marginalized communities inside the seeking to protection of the constitutional legal rights regarding Court.
When you look at the 1999, Costa Ricans prominent their Constitution’s fiftieth wedding. step 1 The new value of your own Composition on these fifty age is daily put into a couple of type of episodes, both before and after this new 1989 production of an effective constitutional chamber of the newest Best Courtroom (Sala Constitucional or Sala IV). dos Before 1989, this new constitutionality of lawmakers’ actions was hardly confronted, and you will people in politics experienced their “power to legislate was absolute,” letting them regularly forget constitutional limits to their vitality. 3 Yet not, this new detailed private and you may social rights provisions of your Constitution was basically seldom treated because of the Supreme Courtroom. 4 The actions out of Sala IV magistrates keeps breathed new life into Composition and you may switched Costa Rican government, 5 since Sala IV provides consistently heard and you may definitely decided personal liberties claims. It’s commonly arranged you to, given that 1989, Costa Rica has had an official trend- a whole lot more especially, an effective “rights” revolution-who may have encouraged somebody and you will communities regarding just about any field out-of neighborhood to show to your Legal to own redress. 6
Since the magistrates of your Finest Court prior to now deferred towards the well-known branches from government, they today act as active guardians of Composition. As a whole Sala IV magistrate, Eduardo Sancho, place it: “It’s important to understand the newest Sala IV not as an facilities intended to become at solution of one’s manager branch, however, somewhat the opposite: to guard the latest liberties men and women.” seven The magistrates keeps regularly and you can decisively influenced within the cases of individual legal rights claims, appear to in support of politically weakened and you can socially ines Sala IV choices on cases submitted of the some of the most weakly arranged, politically and you will socially marginalized people in Costa Rican people. Just before doing so, it discusses the fresh judicial institutional construction pre and post the fresh manufacturing away from Sala IV to spell it out the latest sources of your own Court’s heightened official activism and you can, specifically, brand new renewed relevance thought because of the constitutional arrangements because the the newest chamber was at operation.
1. teenchat Of judicial inactivity in order to official activism
To the very first 160 years of independence, Costa Rica’s Supreme Court behaved like other other Latin american process of law, operating on the belief the procedures of your common twigs off government were constitutional except if these people were egregiously and you can obviously if not. 8 As in remaining portion of the region, Costa Rica’s constitutions incorporated costs out of rights that have been largely overlooked and, with greater regularity, simply “parchment traps, inadequate facing political electricity.” 9 For a long time there clearly was big argument among the branches away from regulators regarding the judicial comment. It wasn’t up until 1938 that Ultimate Courtroom built the “official supremacy in constitutional things.” 10 However,, as with most of the remainder of Latin The united states, the latest constitutional guarantees of private legal rights afforded little safety against the caprices away from governmental executives, particularly for marginalized somebody. 11